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14 December 1998
19981213 Week Rotation Today Rotation Week 19981215

Welcome to the Flare Prediction System. This page lists the active regions present on the Sun today, together with their probability of producing C-, M-, or X-class events. Flare probabilities are calculated using NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center data combined over 1969-1976 and 1988-1996 (details of which can be found in Bloomfield et al., 2012, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 747, L41, along with full forecast verification testing). The percentage probabilities are based on the number of flares produced by regions classified using the McIntosh classification scheme (McIntosh, P., 1990, Solar Physics, 125, 251) during cycles 21 and 22. For example, over both time periods there were 377 regions classified Eai. As this class produced 131 M-class events, the mean M-class flare rate is ~131/377 or ~0.347 flares per day. Assuming the number of flares per unit time is governed by Poisson statistics, we can estimate a flaring probability for the following 24-hours using P( one or more flares ) = 1 - exp( -mean ), i.e., P = 1 - exp( -0.347 ) ~ 0.29, or 29% for an Eai class region to produce one or more M-class flares in the next 24-hours.

See Gallagher, P. T., Moon, Y.-J., Wang, H., Solar Physics, 209, 171, (2002),
Wheatland, M. S., 2001, Solar Physics, 203, 87 and Moon et al., 2001, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 106(A12) 29951 for further details.

Click here for a description of the various active region classifications from the Royal Observatory of Belgium.

Region Flare Probabilities (%)
Number McIntosh C-class M-class X-class
No Prediction Found

NOTE: Occurrence of '...' indicates that McIntosh class was not observed in the period over which the Poisson flare rate statistics were determined. Values in parantheses/brackets give the NOAA/SWPC forecast probabilities for the occurrence of one or more C-, M-, or X-class flares. When viewed in real-time and before 22:00 UT, NOAA predictions are valid up to 22:00 UT on the current date. When viewed in real-time after 22:00 UT (or when viewing past dates), NOAA predictions are valid up to 22:00 UT on the following date. The most recent data can also be found at NOAA's 3-day Space Weather Predictions page.

Please contact Peter Gallagher if you have any comments or questions regarding this research.

Today's/Yesterday's NOAA Active Regions
NOAA Number
McIntosh Class
Sunspot Area
Number of Spots
08402 N17W91
α/α Hsx/Hsx 0050/0060 01/01 -
08403 N20W91
α/α Axx/Hsx 0020/0030 01/01 -
08404 S24W91
β/β Cao/Dao 0110/0230 05/13 -
08406 S26W22
β/α Cso/Hsx 0030/0030 02/01 -
08408 S18W27
βγδ/βγ Dao/Dso 0190/0090 19/19 C7.3(09:38)
/ C2.8(20:37)
08409 S28W12
βγ/βγ Eso/Eso 0190/0200 24/21 - / C2.7(01:48)
08410 N24E35
α/α Hsx/Hsx 0060/0070 01/01 -
08411 S28E26
β/β Bxo/Cso 0030/0030 07/05 -
08412 S15W40
β/- Axx/- 0010/- 02/- -

Class (HH:MM) -Today
Class (HH:MM) -Yesterday

Events not associated with currently named NOAA regions: C1.2(03:48) C3.6(06:24) C1.3(11:06) C1.7(11:36) C1.9(12:14) C1.9(17:27) C2.6(19:13) C1.8(03:23) C3.0(05:12) C5.5(07:07) C1.2(18:45) C1.2(20:18)

Note: The tabulated data are based on the most recent NOAA/USAF Active Region Summary issued on 14-Dec-1998 00:30 . The greyed out and light-blue entries are values from the previous day. Slashed cells indicate that the active region has no spots. The latest positions of the active regions are given in both heliographic and heliocentric co-ordinates. The region positions are valid on 14-Dec-1998 23:30 .